On Thursday, April 28, 2011 the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) posted an executive summary of the workshop, “Defining Molecular Pathways and Mechanisms that Predict Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Associated with Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB),” which was held in September 2010. It outlines specific scientific priorities in the areas of sleep, circadian and neuroendocrine mechanisms of energy metabolism; cardiovascular and SDB pathophysiology; and intermediate molecular markers of CVD and SDB. The summary also indicates that there is a need for training and re-specialization opportunities for established investigators in sleep and circadian biology.